Jul 9, 2016

BLOOD GLUCOSE TEST: SCREENING AND DIAGNOSIS



BLOOD GLUCOSE TEST: SCREENING AND DIAGNOSIS
BLOOD GLUCOSE TEST




The following tests may be used for screening and diagnosis of type 1type 2 or prediabetes.
If the initial screening result from one of the tests is abnormal, the test is repeated on another day. The repeat result must also be abnormal to confirm a diagnosis of diabetes.

·        Fasting glucose (fasting blood glucose, FBG): this test measures the level of glucose in the blood after fasting for at least 8 hours.

·        2-hour glucose tolerance test (GTT): for this test, the person has a fasting glucose test done, then drinks a 75-gram glucose drink. Another blood sample is drawn 2 hours after the glucose drink. This protocol "challenges" the person's body to process the glucose.

      Normally, the blood glucose level rises after the drink and stimulates the pancreas to release insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin allows the glucose to be taken up by cells. As time passes, the blood glucose level is expected to decrease again. When a person is unable to produce enough insulin, or if the body's cells are resistant to its effects (insulin resistance), then less glucose is transported from the blood into cells and the blood glucose level remains high.

·        A different test called hemoglobin A1c may be used as an alternative to glucose testing for screening and diagnosis.

Sometimes a blood sample may be drawn and glucose measured when a person has not been fasting, for example, when a comprehensivemetabolic panel (CMP) is performed. If the result is abnormal, it is typically followed up with a fasting blood glucose test or a GTT.

Glucose blood tests are also used to screen pregnant women for gestational diabetes between their 24th and 28th week of pregnancy. The American Diabetes Association and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommend that pregnant women not previously known to have diabetes be screened and diagnosed, using either a one-step or two-step approach. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommends the two-step approach.


·        One-step 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). After a fasting glucose level is measured, a woman is given a 75-gram dose of glucose to drink and her glucose levels are measured at 1 hour and 2 hours after the dose. Only one of the values needs to be above a cutoff value for diagnosis.

·        Two-step:

  • Perform a glucose challenge test as a screen: a woman is given a 50-gram glucose dose to drink and her blood glucose level is measured after 1 hour.
  • If the challenge test is abnormal, perform a 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test.  After a woman's fasting glucose level is measured, she is given a 100-gram glucose dose and her glucose is measured at timed intervals. If at least two of the glucose levels at fasting, 1 hour, 2 hour, or 3 hour are above a certain level, then a diagnosis of gestational diabetes is made.
Glucose testing is also used to test women who were diagnosed with gestational diabetes 6-12 weeks after they have delivered their baby to detect persistent diabetes.

Signs of diabetes

DIABETES SPECIAL CASES: OVER WEIGHTING

DIABETES SPECIAL CASES: OVER WEIGHTING



If you have type 2 diabetes and your body mass index (BMI) is greater than 35, well, that is called over weighting, and it is one of the dangerous Diabetes special cases.

 If you are suffering from over weighting, you may be a candidate for weight-loss surgery (bariatric surgery).

Blood sugar levels return to normal in 55 to 95 percent of diabetic people with over weighting problem, depending on the procedure performed.

 Surgeries that bypass a portion of the small intestine have more of an effect on blood sugar levels than do other weight-loss surgeries.

Drawbacks to the surgery include its high cost, and there are risks involved, including a risk of death. Additionally, drastic lifestyle changes are required and long-term complications may include nutritional deficiencies and osteoporosis.

However, if you are not interested in having a bariatric surgery to solve over weighting problem, there are alternatives.

First of all, you should lose weight by gradually reducing your calorie intake and becoming more physically active. Without that it is imposable to solve your over weighting problem.
Losing 5-10% of your overall body weight over the course of a year is a realistic initial target.
You should aim to continue to lose weight until you've achieved and maintained a BMI within the healthy range, which is:

·        18.5-24.9kg/m² for the general population

·        18.5-22.9kg/m² for people of south Asian or Chinese origin – south Asian includes people from Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indian-Caribbean, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka


If you have a BMI of 30kg/m² or more (27.5kg/m² or more for people of south Asian or Chinese origin), you need a structured weight loss program, which should form part of an intensive lifestyle change program.

To help you achieve changes in your behavior, you may be referred to a dietitian or a similar healthcare professional for a personal assessment and tailored advice about diet and physical activity that is suitable for over weighting case.


Signs Of Diabetes

Jul 7, 2016

Best Foods for Diabetes: Vegetables For Diabetes Diet

Best Foods for Diabetes: Vegetables For Diabetes Diet



"Best Foods for Diabetes "Vegetables


Low glycemic index foods are helpful. The glycemic index is a measure of how quickly a food causes a rise in your blood sugar. Foods with a high glycemic index raise your blood sugar quickly. Low glycemic index foods help you achieve a more stable blood sugar. Foods with a low glycemic index typically are foods that are higher in fiber.

The most foods that are rich with fiber and have a low glycemic index are vegetable.
They are literally the best foods for diabetes, and they are essential in every Diabetes diet.

So Load up! You’ll get fiber and very little fat or salt (unless you add them). But  remember, potatoes and corn count as carbs. The best vegetables for Diabetes diet, and which count as best foods for Diabetes:
·        Fresh veggies, eaten raw or lightly steamed, roasted, or grilled
·        Plain frozen vegetables, lightly steamed
·        Greens such as kale, spinach, and arugula. Iceberg lettuce is not as great, because       it’s low in nutrients.
·        Low sodium or unsalted canned vegetables                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
Go for a variety of colors: dark greens, red or orange (think of carrots or red peppers), whites (onions) and even purple (eggplants). The 2015 U.S. guidelines recommend 2.5 cups of veggies per day.

But not all vegetables are good foods for Diabetes. There is some of them which considered bad and not contained in Diabetes Diets. Like:

·        Canned vegetables with lots of added sodium
·        Veggies cooked with lots of added butter, cheese, or sauce
·        Pickles, if you need to limit sodium, otherwise, pickles are okay.
·        Sauerkraut, for the same reason as pickles. so, limit them if you have high blood      pressure

But is there any vegetable that you can eat without any concern, exists in every Diabetes diet, and considered among the best foods for Diabetes? YES, TOMATOES.
 An old standby where everyone can find a favorite. The good news is that no matter how you like your tomatoes, pureed, raw, or in a sauce, you’re eating vital nutrients like vitamin C, iron, vitamin E.

 Best Foods for Diabetes
 Signs of Diabetes